A person who studies biological and physical aspects of the sea is called an oceanographer, and the study related with the science of oceans is called oceanology or marine science.
It is an interdisciplinary field of science, which uses insights from chemistry, geology, biology, physics and meteorology to analyze marine ecosystems, waves, ocean plate tectonics and ocean currents. They also analyze various features of the ocean floor such as hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. Birth of modern oceanography took place in the 1760s, when science-minded explorers such as Antoine de Bougainville from France and James Cook from Britain included their observations on oceanography in reports of their journeys. Oceanography is mainly divided into four categories: the study of marine life and their interactions is called biological oceanography. Study related with the chemistry of oceans, including both past and present, and its interactions with the atmosphere is called chemical oceanography. Geological oceanography includes the study of motion and interaction of oceanic tectonic plates, physics of the oceans that includes light, sound and radio waves propagating in the ocean. Oceanography is also used in the construction of oil platforms, harbors, and ships for commercial and scientific ventures.
Basic qualification for an oceanographer is a Doctorate degree in physics, applied mathematics, oceanography, earth science or marine science.
Geological oceanographers or geophysicists in other words explore the ocean and various geologic structures. Properties such as temperature, density, wave, tide and motion are explored by physical oceanographers. Chemical oceanographers investigate the chemical composition of seawater. Biological oceanographers study the growth and development of organisms that develop in the ocean.